More information about Complex Numbers

Lower case z is commonly used to represent complex numbers.

z = x + iy

z is the complex number. The variable x is the real part and the variable y is the imaginary part.

Complex numbers also have a negative representation.

-z = -x + i(-y)

The conjugate of a complex number is the negation of the imaginary part.

= x – iy

z, which is pronounced “z bar”, is used to represent the conjugate of a complex number.

i² = -1, i³ = -i, i⁴ = 1

Real numbers can be represented as complex numbers. If a is a real number, the complex version is written as follows:

a = a + i0