Lower case z is commonly used to represent complex numbers.
z = x + iy
z is the complex number. The variable x is the real part and the variable y is the imaginary part.
Complex numbers also have a negative representation.
-z = -x + i(-y)
The conjugate of a complex number is the negation of the imaginary part.
, which is pronounced “z bar”, is used to represent the conjugate of a complex number.
i² = -1, i³ = -i, i⁴ = 1
Real numbers can be represented as complex numbers. If a is a real number, the complex version is written as follows:
a = a + i0